Policy and strategy
Nations need to trust or ban a vendor from building their Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure and services. In a world where private companies almost exclusively wield both the technical expertise and means to develop, operate, and maintain the ICT structure, nations increasingly depend on the private sector.
Global unrest is fast becoming the norm in cyberspace, where cybercriminals operate with relative impunity, and novel technologies allow nation-states to sharpen their practice of influence operations. There is a near-constant rate of hacks against computers – by one recent count every 39 seconds on average for devices connected to the Internet. If cybercrime is not tackled, at risk is nothing less than trust in the government’s ability to deliver on the promise of security.
Today, cyberspace is deeply challenged by a variety of largely political concerns. This new humanizing of cyberspace may seem fitting to some who fretted for years over a relative lack of high-level political interest in the world’s only new “domain.” With cyber now being the topic of the day, it is easy to forget that, however notional, cyber was considered too technical to be worthy of elite policy attention until suddenly it was red hot and everywhere.
Introduction: Applying the Concept of Resilience in Hungary
The purpose of applying the concept of resilience is to strengthen the abilities of systems, organizations, policies, and individuals to respond well to external impacts. Many experts agree that “the recent enthusiasm for the concept of resilience across a range of policy literature is the consequence of its fit with neoliberal discourse.
In recent years, the notion of resilience has experienced an astonishing expansion away from the area of its original application and transformation of its meaning.
Modern digitized societies and economies are globally interconnected and increasingly interdependent as a result of global digital connectivity and dependency on digital infrastructure, communications, and systems. The analysis of these interdependencies and emerging complex vulnerabilities and threats requires a holistic approach, which goes well beyond the personal, the enterprise, or the sectoral cybersecurity measures.
This article provides a synthetic description of the discontinuity between the evolution of warfare as it was in a pre-cyber era and the switch to cyber warfare. The evolution from bronze to iron weapons, and later to gunpower weapons and flying objects does not compare with the cyber era warfare; even UAVs and “intelligent” rockets do not provide a significant understanding of the actual and near future scenarios. Cyber technology is nowadays pervasive and utilised world-wide.