In recent years, the notion of resilience has experienced an astonishing expansion away from the area of its original application and transformation of its meaning.
Modern digitized societies and economies are globally interconnected and increasingly interdependent as a result of global digital connectivity and dependency on digital infrastructure, communications, and systems. The analysis of these interdependencies and emerging complex vulnerabilities and threats requires a holistic approach, which goes well beyond the personal, the enterprise, or the sectoral cybersecurity measures.
This article provides a synthetic description of the discontinuity between the evolution of warfare as it was in a pre-cyber era and the switch to cyber warfare. The evolution from bronze to iron weapons, and later to gunpower weapons and flying objects does not compare with the cyber era warfare; even UAVs and “intelligent” rockets do not provide a significant understanding of the actual and near future scenarios. Cyber technology is nowadays pervasive and utilised world-wide.