The phrase nonlethal weapons often brings to mind capabilities such as bean bags, rubber bullets, pepper spray, and electric stun guns. These capabilities are used domestically by law enforcement and by the military, primarily for protection and security missions. Nonlethal weapons (NLW) technology, however, has advanced significantly over the past 20 years.
The Russia-Ukraine war is, first and foremost, a military catastrophe, but it has also generated seismic economic impacts that have had global consequences. Aside from the huge costs of the war, estimated at up to US $ 600bn for Ukraine alone, there are the indirect effects, such as surging energy, fuel, and food prices, created by knock-on disruptions of global supply chains
For decades, the socioeconomic models that tested cooperation predicted that it would only endure in groups that developed social norms of commitment, trust, and reciprocity. But as Mathew Jackson noted, and what still holds, those predictions invariably have drawn from models that address small groups of agents and ignore questions of how communities build networks into historical regimes with the capacity to create bonds extending beyond kinship and lineage.