Eastern Europe

Lessons Learned from Military Intelligence Services Reform in Hungary

Hugyik, Andras. "Lessons Learned from Military Intelligence Services Reform in Hungary." Connections: The Quarterly Journal 20, no. 1 (2021): 33-49.

Introduction

National Security Services

Generally, we distinguish between two types of national security services. One is the internal intelligence service (or counterintelligence), which collects and manages information about a country’s internal security. Its task is to protect the state, the territory, and society from foreign interference (subversion, espionage, political violence).

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Hybrid Warfare and Cyber Effects in Energy Infrastructure

Maliarchuk, Tamara, Yuriy Danyk, and Chad Briggs. "Hybrid Warfare and Cyber Effects in Energy Infrastructure." Connections: The Quarterly Journal 18, no. 1 (2019): 93-110.

Introduction

Discussions of hybrid warfare have often centered on definitional debates over the precise nature of the term, and whether ‘hybrid’ covers what other military experts describe as nonlinear warfare, full-spectrum warfare, fourth-generation warfare, or other such terms. Similarly, discussions of cyber conflict have treated the phenomenon as a separate domain, as if using cyber tools remained distinct from other forms of conflict.

18.1.06_hybrid_cip.pdf — Downloaded 314 times

Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic on China’s Belt and Road Initiative

Mouritz, Frank. "Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic on China’s Belt and Road Initiative." Connections: The Quarterly Journal 19, no. 2 (2020): 115-124.

Introduction

There is widespread agreement among scientists that one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, the plague or black death, originated in China and spread along the old silk road to Europe.[1] It demonstrated a pattern that is as old as human history: when people and goods travel, so do bacteria and viruses.

Balancing Defense and Civil Support Tasks: The Impact of Covid-19 on the Bulgarian Military’s Roles

Tagarev, Todor. "Balancing Defense and Civil Support Tasks: The Impact of Covid-19 on the Bulgarian Military’s Roles." Connections: The Quarterly Journal 19, no. 2 (2020): 61-76.

Introduction

The Bulgarian armed forces, just like the armed forces in many other countries, have three main roles: defense of the sovereignty and the national territory, contribution to international peace and security, and contribution to internal security, particularly in times of crises. In peacetime, the third of these roles is most visible to society. The military contribution during the Covid-19 pandemic makes no exception.

Coronavirus Pandemic and Reactions in the EU Accession Classes of 2004-2007

Dunay, Pàl. "Coronavirus Pandemic and Reactions in the EU Accession Classes of 2004-2007." Connections: The Quarterly Journal 19, no. 2 (2020): 37-47.

Introduction

Since the Coronavirus pandemic has hijacked the security agenda and gained priority in international politics, for the time being, speculation has been rife about how long this world change will last. Views vary: Some start out from the view that the pandemic is no more than a hiccup and, after a limited period of a few months or a maximum of two years, the world will return to “normality,” particularly if a vaccination becomes available worldwide.

Transformation of Security and Intelligence Services in Latvia

Kudors, Andis. "Transformation of Security and Intelligence Services in Latvia." Connections: The Quarterly Journal 18, no. 3 (2019): 105-124.

Introduction

Latvia had lost its statehood de facto in the years of the Soviet occupation. Its security structures during the Soviet period were established by an external, hostile force. Therefore, we cannot talk about the ‘transformation’ of Latvian security services in 1990 and 1991, but rather about ‘demolition’ and ‘rebuilding anew.’

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Transformation of the State Security in the Slovak Republic from 1989 to 1992

Stieranka, Jozef, and Martina Binderová. "Transformation of the State Security in the Slovak Republic from 1989 to 1992." Connections: The Quarterly Journal 18, no. 3 (2019): 87-103.

Introduction

The following article describes the transformation process of the State Security (hereinafter StB) [1] in the Slovak Republic, which began after the “Velvet Revolution” in November 1989. Following the “Velvet Revolution,” a democratization process was initiated in all areas of social life, including political, economic, social, as well as changes in the security services.

Transformation of the Security and Intelligence Services in the Czech Republic

Michálek, Luděk, and Ladislav Pokorný. "Transformation of the Security and Intelligence Services in the Czech Republic." Connections: The Quarterly Journal 18, no. 3 (2019): 65-86.

Introduction

In 1989, Czechoslovakia was an integral part of the Soviet bloc, a member of the Warsaw Pact and, although there were significant changes in the Soviet Union weakening its power over its satellites, the then top Czechoslovak officials still kept their traditional, very rigid positions.

South Caucasus, PME and Intelligence Services’ Transformation in Focus

Fluri, Philipp. "South Caucasus, PME and Intelligence Services’ Transformation in Focus." Connections: The Quarterly Journal 18, no. 3 (2019): 5-6.

None of the important time-critical processes described and analyzed in the articles presented here could have been realized without expert advice provided by NATO initiatives and the cooperation with NATO member and partner coun­tries. Thus, the Defense Education Enhancement Program (DEEP) played and continues to play a crucial role in Professional Military Education (PME) and in­teroperability in the Southern Caucasus.

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