Eastern Europe

Balancing Defense and Civil Support Tasks: The Impact of Covid-19 on the Bulgarian Military’s Roles

Transformation of Security and Intelligence Services in Latvia

Kudors, Andis. "Transformation of Security and Intelligence Services in Latvia." Connections: The Quarterly Journal 18, no. 3 (2019): 105-124.

Introduction

Latvia had lost its statehood de facto in the years of the Soviet occupation. Its security structures during the Soviet period were established by an external, hostile force. Therefore, we cannot talk about the ‘transformation’ of Latvian security services in 1990 and 1991, but rather about ‘demolition’ and ‘rebuilding anew.’

South Caucasus, PME and Intelligence Services’ Transformation in Focus

Fluri, Philipp. "South Caucasus, PME and Intelligence Services’ Transformation in Focus." Connections: The Quarterly Journal 18, no. 3 (2019): 5-6.

None of the important time-critical processes described and analyzed in the articles presented here could have been realized without expert advice provided by NATO initiatives and the cooperation with NATO member and partner coun­tries. Thus, the Defense Education Enhancement Program (DEEP) played and continues to play a crucial role in Professional Military Education (PME) and in­teroperability in the Southern Caucasus.

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