21st Century Cyber Warfare

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Information & Security: An International Journal, Volume 44, p.53-61 (2020)


cyber warfare, Cybersecurity, hackers, Risk Assessment
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This article provides a synthetic description of the discontinuity between the evolution of warfare as it was in a pre-cyber era and the switch to cyber warfare. The evolution from bronze to iron weapons, and later to gunpower weapons and flying objects does not compare with the cyber era warfare; even UAVs and “intelligent” rockets do not provide a significant understanding of the actual and near future scenarios. Cyber technology is nowadays pervasive and utilised world-wide. Global networking is one of the building blocks of our society, communication, information, government, health, education, mobility, markets, the list of involved sectors is endless, all of them rely on cyber security and the trustfulness of the information provided through the network. An ever-increasing volume of information is flowing through the network including messages concerning future risks or cyber-weapons. There is a clear need to adopt a renovated set of countermeasures to face and possibly cancel or mitigate such harms.

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