Lessons Learned from Military Intelligence Services Reform in Hungary
National Security Services
Generally, we distinguish between two types of national security services. One is the internal intelligence service (or counterintelligence), which collects and manages information about a country’s internal security. Its task is to protect the state, the territory, and society from foreign interference (subversion, espionage, political violence).
The Legal and Legitimate Combat Against COVID-19: German Curfew-related Case Law
In the wake of COVID-19, much has been written about Chinese and Russian attempts to use the crisis to reshape international order in favor of authoritarian regimes. Diplomatic initiatives, staged relief operations, and troll propaganda was rolled out when the coronavirus hit Europe and the USA in early March 2020. The intention was, and still is, to target western societies in distress. These activities insinuate that centralized, illiberal governance models are better prepared to manage the crisis.
Transformation of Security and Intelligence Services in Latvia
Latvia had lost its statehood de facto in the years of the Soviet occupation. Its security structures during the Soviet period were established by an external, hostile force. Therefore, we cannot talk about the ‘transformation’ of Latvian security services in 1990 and 1991, but rather about ‘demolition’ and ‘rebuilding anew.’
Transformation of the State Security in the Slovak Republic from 1989 to 1992
The following article describes the transformation process of the State Security (hereinafter StB)  in the Slovak Republic, which began after the “Velvet Revolution” in November 1989. Following the “Velvet Revolution,” a democratization process was initiated in all areas of social life, including political, economic, social, as well as changes in the security services.
Transformation of the Security and Intelligence Services in the Czech Republic
In 1989, Czechoslovakia was an integral part of the Soviet bloc, a member of the Warsaw Pact and, although there were significant changes in the Soviet Union weakening its power over its satellites, the then top Czechoslovak officials still kept their traditional, very rigid positions.
Defence Institution Building in Ukraine at Peace and at War
In 1991, independent Ukraine inherited from the Soviet Union sizeable conventional military contingent equivalent to Europe’s second largest armed forces and had on its territory the third world largest nuclear arsenal. The process of conversion of this rather chaotic massive post-Soviet force and building the coherent national military of Ukraine went through two major stages – peace-time decline (1991-2013) and war-time transformation since the start of Russian invasion to Crimea in 2014.
Defense Institution Building from Above? Lessons from the Baltic Experience
There is nothing better than ‘NATO dirt’ under the ‘fingernails.’ So said then NATO Supreme allied commander in Europe, General John Shalikashvili, in reference to the goal of the Partnership for Peace (PfP). In the aftermath of the Cold War, the states of Eastern Europe looked for aid from the West. The Partnership for Peace (PfP) was NATO’s response. The goal was to bring members of the former Warsaw Pact into closer cooperation with NATO.
Defense Institution Building in the U.S. Context
The United States has been in the business of assisting partner nations’ militaries for decades. The original security assistance framework that was first developed in the 1960s, however, has proven insufficient to keep up with the demands of the 21st century security environment. As such, the broader U.S.
NATO’s Defense Institution Building and Projecting Stability: Current Priorities and Activities
“If our neighbours are more stable, we are more secure.” This statement, made by the NATO Heads of State and Government at their 2016 Summit in Warsaw, touches upon the core of NATO’s work on Projecting Stability. However, efforts aimed at “projecting stability” are not easy to contextualize and conceptualize – ‘stability’ may carry different connotations depending on the circumstances.
The Persistent Demand for Defense Institution Building
Transparent and accountable, efficient and effective Defense Institution Building (DIB) is one of the shared values that binds together not only NATO but also NATO’s Partnership Programming. In this way, DIB is also an essential part of defense management and reform.