Already in our era of “classical computing,” maintaining cybersecurity is an enormous challenge.
Nowadays, it is not uncommon for social media to include manifestations of hatred, misleading information, and elements of extremism or terrorism. We already observe that political and religious extremist groups use social media and networks to promote their ideology, recruit new members, demonstrate their power, and shock society with videos of wars as something commonplace and unavoidable. Society is already able to act against such use of social networks and its negative consequences. There are many ways to do so.
Discussions of hybrid warfare have often centered on definitional debates over the precise nature of the term, and whether ‘hybrid’ covers what other military experts describe as nonlinear warfare, full-spectrum warfare, fourth-generation warfare, or other such terms. Similarly, discussions of cyber conflict have treated the phenomenon as a separate domain, as if using cyber tools remained distinct from other forms of conflict.